OCPP 2.0.1 protocol, ISO 15118, and Smart EV Charging are something electricity utility companies, EV fleet managers, Charge Point Operators (EV CPO), and Electro mobility service providers (EMSP) are increasingly taking into account these days.
These two standards dictate the communication protocols between an electric vehicle and an electric vehicle charging station.
The energy market hopes that ISO 15118 will provide an internet-protocol-based communication standard for smart charging.
Besides summarizing ISO 15118’s and OCCP 2.0.1 applications, Tridens has also analyzed its effects on Smart Charging use cases V1G and V2G.
Table of contents
ISO 15118 – User Authorization, Security Layer, and More
ISO 15118 comes with a Plug and Charge facility providing an identification and authorization mode. This mechanism allows EV driver to plug their vehicle into smart charging stations without further authorization. This situation is equivalent to the driver of a gas-powered car tipping up at the gas station without a payment method!
ISO 15118 is similar to that on the World Wide Web in Public Key Infrastructures (PKI). However, it is used for standardized authentication between EV manufacturers and charging station producers.
But, there are other advantages to ISO 15118 beyond authentication. It allows message encryption to transfer energy data between EVs and charging stations securely.
Whenever an EV plugs into a charging station, it enables the system to optimize dynamic load management and other functions. This is the concept of Smart EV Charging.
Increased Data Creates Smarter Charging
The term Smart Charging describes the various concepts and techniques used to control the EVs’ charging process. One such method is reducing peak use times so that charging providers can avoid higher costs and help grid balancing to prevent overload.
There must be communication between the EV, the charging station, and the grid to control the electricity an EV draws from a charging station. This communication is enabled by ISO 15118, as it allows the EV to send its battery’s state of charge to the charging station.
Energy Management Systems (EMS) can now accurately view the energy (kWh) that each EV needs. The system can then set the Smart Charging output accordingly.
Therefore, having such EV charging software helps deal with three major issues as follows:
- Inefficient Optimization. Concentrating on one EV and blocking other charging events.
- EV Batteries With No Charge. Missing vehicles with insufficient energy.
- Complicated Workarounds. Using time-consuming alternatives to access information that smart charging provides.
ISO 15118 Reliance On OCPP 2.0.1
Having received the EV’s charging information, the CPO needs to pass that information on to the EV charging station management system (CMS). Most CMSs support Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP).
OCPP is a communication protocol between an EV charging station and the system’s back office.
OCPP works similarly to many IoT protocols. It is the messaging method between charging stations and the back-end systems they communicate with for authentication purposes, issuing charging commands, and tracking energy levels.
Most charging systems run OCPP 1.5 or 1.6 that don’t support or support limited Smart Charging functionality. This capability allows CPOs to transmit charging limits and schedules from the back-end to the charging stations.
With OCPP 1.5, a charging process can only be started or stopped.
The latest version, OCPP 2.0.1, enables the requested energy amount to be sent from an EV at a charging station to the central charging system. This capability is another significant improvement; however, few manufacturers support it.
ISO 15118, in combination with OCPP 2.0.1, enables an EV to send its state of charge to the charging point. The charge point then forwards this information to the back-end. Accordingly, the exactness of the data allows Smart Charging functionality to plan and charge events accurately.
Can Smart Charging Occur Without ISO 15118 and OCPP 2.0.1?
Smart charging can still take place without OCPP 2.0.1 and ISO 15118.
Three techniques make this possible:
- EVs can often send information directly to cloud-based systems. These transmissions can be done using APIs or data-logging equipment. This practice is useful for vehicle fleet managers of companies such as DHL, GLS, or UPS.
- Despite not sending an absolute value for the requested energy amount, OCPP 1.6 sends the State of Charge (SoC) as a percentage. For instance, sending the EV’s current battery state as 70% would mean it needs a 30% charge.
- Most charging systems have a user interface that enables users to communicate with the central management system. CPOs can adapt this interface to include necessary fields for users to select at the start of the charging process.
Although these three techniques make it possible to conduct smart charging without OCPP 2.0.1 and ISO 11158, it is not as effective as having them.
OCPP 2.0.1 and ISO 11158 will take Smart Charging to another level, like the internet-enabled computers to communicate with each other.
Fleet managers, utility companies, and CPOs now have the opportunity to reduce energy costs, avoid significant investments, and use clean energy by implementing Smart Charging.
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