EV Charging load balancing is an important feature of dynamic EV Charging load management. Both together form an essential part of smart EV charging software.
Load balancing prevents destabilizing or overloading the power grid. It does it by managing the power distribution to EV charging stations when more vehicles are simultaneously charging.
If the charging system’s power demand exceeds the grid’s power supply, the system will respond and change the charging power on each charging point.
EV charging load balancing function is a must-have for private or public EV charging stations and EV charging networks. Generally, it should be used anywhere where more power consumers can work simultaneously.
Table of contents
- Static EV charging load balancing
- Dynamic EV charging load balancing
- Static vs. dynamic EV charging load balancing
- Home or workplace EV charging load balancing
- Public and residential charging networks
- EV charging load sharing principles
Static EV charging load balancing
There are two types of load balancing, static and dynamic.
Static load balancing adjusts available power between EV chargers based on fixed allocated supply capacity within the charging cluster. Static load balancing distributes traffic without considering the system’s present condition.
Dynamic EV charging load balancing
Dynamic load balancing algorithms consider the present state of the system and each consumer and distribute traffic accordingly. The charging stations communicate with the EV charging management software in real-time and report the demand and preferences.
Even when many chargers and other power consumers work simultaneously, there is no risk of overloading.
Dynamic load balancing is an intelligent approach to EV charging and allows numerous EV charging points to operate simultaneously. It provides the highest potential charging power without compromising the electrical grid and power supply.
The load balancing system distributes available onsite energy to the electric vehicle charging network in real-time. As a result, the charging power can be momentarily limited to satisfy the energy constraints imposed by demand from other consumers. In contrast, when energy usage in the same electrical grid is low, the power allocated may be higher.
Furthermore, a smart EV Charging software will allow prioritizing between the chargers in use or even on the person charging.
Static vs. dynamic EV charging load balancing
Static load balancing can be called “dumb” because it is not optimizing power. In contrast, dynamic load balancing is “smart” because it optimizes distribution between power consumers.
Static load balancing is a thing of the past, although it is still widely used. With the mass EV adoption, the power grid will need huge investments if dynamic load balancing is not used. Therefore dynamic load balancing it’s essential and must be a part of any Smart EV Charging management software.
Home or workplace EV charging load balancing
When homeowners or companies install EV Chargers, load balancing is a must-have. Especially in houses, the power demand can easily reach the Maximum Import Capacity (MIC) if many appliances operate simultaneously with EV Charging. To prevent this, load balancing will balance all household appliances and other consumers (heating, air-conditioning,…).
The EV smart charging is usually the only “smart” device with load balancing in the household. So if the power demand from other devices is too high, the charging is temporarily limited or stopped.
The same goes for companies that install EV charging stations to provide EV Charging for employees or charge their EV Fleets. If they don’t want EV charging to interfere with other power consumption, they must install smart EV Chargers with load balancing.
Public and residential charging networks
Public load balancing serves to distribute EV charging power on a higher level. Since there are more EVs at public charging points, it is logical that they will use more electricity.
We hear this scenario all of the time:
“If all EV drivers decide to charge their vehicles simultaneously, the grid will collapse!”.
It can happen, but only if we don’t use dynamic load balancing.
Smart EV charging software with load balancing will distribute available power between different smart charging stations and limit or temporarily shut some of them if the power demand is too high. Thus, the grid can’t collapse since the EV charging software will balance charging power according to the real-time monitoring of the energy available.
Without dynamic load balancing, the power grids will need a lot of updates and investments soon to accommodate the rising number of EVs and EV charging stations. It’s one of the biggest challenges the EV charging infrastructure faces today.
EV charging load sharing principles
EV charging load sharing is a term that describes how multiple EV chargers get the power. There are two general load-sharing principles and a third that will become more and more popular and depend on providers’ business models.
Equal distribution load sharing
The equal distribution load sharing principle distributes the available power equally between all charging stations in use at the time. If five chargers are in use, they will all receive 20% of the total available power. When one vehicle leaves, the power is distributed between the four remaining in use, meaning each station will get 25% of the total energy.
The First in, First charged load sharing principle
The First in, First charged principle follows the order in which the vehicles started charging. It means that the first connected vehicle will receive the maximum power for the full charging duration. The second vehicle will receive the remaining energy; if there is still any left, it will go to the third connected vehicle, and so on.
The priority load sharing principle
With the development of new business models and offerings, some providers can offer their customers VIP plans or subscriptions, enabling them to bypass the assigned load sharing plan and receive priority treatment.
In EV fleet management, the fleet operators use the priority load sharing principle to assign priority charging to some essential vehicles in their EV fleet.
EV Charging load balancing is often falsely referred to as load management, but in reality, it’s just one of the load management functions.
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